Narration ইংরেজী ব্যকরণের একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ অংশ। মাধ্যমিক ও উচ্চ মাধ্যমিক সকল শ্রেণীর পরীক্ষায় ও বিভিন্ন চাকুরী পরীক্ষায় Narration থেকে প্রশ্ন আসে। আপনারা যাতে সহজেই Narration আয়ত্ব করতে পারেন এজন্য আমরা এ অংশে Narration ( Part-2) নিয়ে আলোচনা করেছি।
কমা ও Inverted কমা উঠানোর জন্য আমরা নিমোক্ত linking word গুলো ব্যবহার করব।
বিভিন্ন sentence এর Linking word এর ব্যাবহার গুলো নিম্নে দেয়া হল:
Example: Direct: He said, “ I write a letter”
Indirect: He said that he wrote a letter.
Direct: He said to me, “ I have done my duty ”
Indirect: He told me that he had done his duty.
Direct: He said to me, “ Will you return the book ? ”
Indirect: He asked me if 1 would return the book
Direct : The teacher Kamal, “ Why are you talking in the class’
Indirect : The teacher asked Kamal why he was talking in the class.
N.B: যদি Interrogative Sentence টি Auxiliary verb দ্বারা শুরু হয় তাহলে If আর যদি Wh Word দ্বারা শুরু হয় তাহলে সেই Wh Word টি Linking word হিসাবে বসবে।
Direct: The man said to me, “ Please give me a glass of water”
Indirect. Ihe man requested me to give him a glass of water.
Direct: Sayed said to me, “ Don’t tell a lie.
Indirect Sayed advised me not to tell a lie. “ Let us go out for a walk”
Indirect He proposed that we should go out tor ,, Walk.
Direct: Father said to me, “May Allah bless you’’
Indirect: Father wished me that Allah might bless me.
Direct: We said , “ Long live our president’’
Indirect: We wished that our president might live long.
Direct: Boys said ,“ Hurrah! We have won the game ”
Indirect. Boys exclaimed with jo\ that they had won the game.
Direct: She said, “ What a nice bird it is!”
Indirect: She exclaimed with wonder that it was a very nice bird.
Direct: He said, “ Alas! My mother is dead ”
Indirect He exclaimed with sorrow that his mother was dead.
I, me, my, we, us, our → (পরিবর্তন হবে subject অনুসারে) you, your (পরিবর্তন হবে object অনুসারে)
|Subject 1||Object 2||Possessive 3|
NB: 3rd person এর কোন পরিবর্তন নাই।
Direct: Rafiq said,“ I shall do the work”
Indirect: Rafiq said that he would do the work
Direct: Fatema said, “My pen is red”
Indirect: Fatema said that her pen was red.
Direct: He said, “ He likes me”
Indirect: He said that he liked him.
Direct: Mamun said, “ We play football”
Indirect’ Mamtin said that they played football.
Direct: They said. “ We have done our duty”
Indirect:They said that they had done their duty.
Direct: Maruf said to me, “You did the work”
Indirect: Maruf told me that I had done the work.
Direct: He said to Karim , “ I will beat you”
Indirect: He told Karim that he would beat him
Direct. He said to me , “ Your mother is ill”
Indirect: He said to me that my mother was ill
|Am, is, are||Was, were|
|Was, Were||had been|
|Present from (go)||past from (went)|
|Past from (go)||past from (went)|
|Past from (went)||had +p.p.v (had gone)|
Direct: Mamun said, ”1 am ill”
Indirect: Mamun said that he was ill
Fatema said, “My pen is red”
Indirect: Fatema said that her pen was red
Direct: Maruf said , “ They are student”
Indirect: Maruf said that they were student
Direct: They said, “We have done our duty”
Indirect: They said that they had done their duty
Direct: Mustakim said, “He has written a letter.’
Indirect: Mustakim said that he had WTitten a letter
Direct: He said, “I write a letter”
Indirect: He said that he wrote a letter
Direct: Maruf said to me, “You did the work”
Indirect: Maruf told me that I had done the work
Direct: Nuzat said, “I shall see the patient”
Indirect: Nuzat said that she would see the patient
Direct: He said to Faiza, “You will do the work’
Indirect: He said to Faiza that she would do the work
Direct: Diba said, “I can do the sum”
Indirect: Diba said that she could do the sum
Direct: She said, “I may go there.”
Indirect: She said that she might go there
Direct: He said, “I must do it”
Indirect: He said that he had to do it”
*** তবে must দ্বারা যদি চিরন্তন বাধ্যকতা বুঝায় তাহলে must এর কোনা পরিবর্তন নেই অন্য দিকে would, could, might, should, ought to এর কোন পরিবর্তন নেই।
Direct: The teacher said to the students, “ You must obey your parents ”
Indirect: The teacher told the students that they must obey their parents
Direct: Tareq said, “ I could do the sum” Indirect: Tareq said that he could do the sum.
Direct: Motin said, “ I might go to the function.” Indirect: Motin said that he might go to the function
Direct: Habib said to me , “ We should do our duty.” Indirect: Habib that we should do our duty.
N.B: We দ্বারা যদি Speaker I listener উভয়কে বুঝায়কে তাহলে We এর কোন পরিবর্তন নেই। আবার We দ্বারা যদি সমগ্র মানবজাতিকে বুঝায় তাহলেও We এর কোন পরিবর্তন নেই।
Direct: He said, “We are mortal.”
Indirect: He said that We are mortal.
Direct: Iqbal said, “You ought to obey your parents”
Indirect: Habib said that I ought to obey my parents.
*** চিরন্তন সত্য ও অভ্যাসগত কর্মের কোন পরিবর্তন নেই।
Direct: Mother said, “ The sun rises in the east”
Indirect: Mother said that the sun rises in the east.
Direct: Shamim said, “ 1 get up at 5 am”
Indirect: Shamim said that he gets up at 5 am.