বেসিক ইংরেজী কোর্স

Narration এর যত সহজ নিয়ম কানুন (Part-2)

Narration ইংরেজী ব্যকরণের একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ অংশ। মাধ্যমিক ও উচ্চ মাধ্যমিক সকল শ্রেণীর পরীক্ষায়  ও বিভিন্ন চাকুরী পরীক্ষায় Narration থেকে প্রশ্ন আসে। আপনারা যাতে সহজেই Narration আয়ত্ব করতে পারেন এজন্য আমরা এ অংশে Narration ( Part-2) নিয়ে আলোচনা করেছি।

২য় অংশ

Linking word

কমা ও Inverted কমা উঠানোর জন্য আমরা নিমোক্ত linking word গুলো ব্যবহার করব।

Assertive that
Interrogative if/wh word
Imperative to/not   to/that
Optative that
Exclamatory that

বিভিন্ন sentence এর Linking word এর ব্যাবহার গুলো নিম্নে দেয়া হল:

Assertive

Example: Direct: He said, “ I write a letter”

Indirect: He said that he wrote a letter.

Direct: He said to me, “ I have done my duty ”

Indirect: He told me that he had done his duty.

Interrogative

Direct: He said to me, “ Will you return the book ? ”

Indirect: He asked me if 1 would return the book

Direct : The teacher Kamal, “ Why are you talking in the class’

Indirect : The  teacher asked Kamal  why he was  talking in the class.


N.B: যদি Interrogative Sentence টি Auxiliary verb দ্বারা শুরু হয় তাহলে If আর যদি Wh Word দ্বারা শুরু হয় তাহলে সেই Wh Word টি Linking word হিসাবে বসবে।

Imperative

Direct: The man said to me, “ Please give me a glass of water”

Indirect. Ihe man requested me to give him a glass of water.

Direct: Sayed said to me, “ Don’t tell a lie.

Indirect Sayed advised me not to tell a lie. “ Let us go out for a walk”

Indirect He proposed that we should go out tor ,, Walk.

Optative

Direct: Father said to me, “May Allah bless you’’

Indirect: Father wished me that Allah might bless me.

Direct: We said , “ Long live our president’’

Indirect: We wished that our president might live long.

Exclamatory

Direct: Boys said ,“ Hurrah! We have won the game ”

Indirect. Boys exclaimed with jo\ that they had won the game.

Direct: She said, “ What a nice bird it is!”

Indirect: She exclaimed with wonder that it was a very nice bird.

Direct: He said, “ Alas! My mother is dead ”

Indirect He exclaimed with sorrow that his mother was dead.


৩য় অংশ

Person Change

I, me, my, we, us, our → (পরিবর্তন হবে subject অনুসারে)      you, your (পরিবর্তন হবে object অনুসারে)

Subject 1 Object 2 Possessive 3
I Me My
We Us Our
He Him His
She Her Her
They Them Their
You You Your
Mamun Mamun Mamuns
It It Its

NB: 3rd person এর কোন পরিবর্তন নাই।

Direct:   Rafiq said,“ I shall do the work”

Indirect: Rafiq said that he would do the work

Direct:  Fatema said, “My pen is red”

Indirect: Fatema said that her pen was red.

Direct:   He said, “ He likes me”

Indirect: He said that he liked him.

Direct:     Mamun said,    “ We play football”

Indirect’ Mamtin said that they played football.

Direct:     They said.   “ We have done our duty”

Indirect:They said that they had done their duty.

Direct: Maruf said to me, “You did the work”

Indirect: Maruf told me that I had done the work.

Direct: He said to Karim , “ I will beat you”

Indirect: He told Karim that he would beat him

Direct. He said to me ,  “ Your mother is ill”

Indirect: He said to me that my mother was ill


৪র্থ অংশ

Tense Change

Am, is, are Was, were
Was, Were had been
have, has had
Present from (go) past from (went)
Past from (go) past from (went)
Past from (went) had +p.p.v (had gone)
Did had+p.p.v
Shall/will would
Can Could
May Might
Must had to

Direct: Mamun said, ”1 am ill”

Indirect: Mamun said that he was ill

Fatema said, “My pen is red”

Indirect: Fatema said that her pen was red

Direct: Maruf said , “ They are student”

Indirect: Maruf said that they were student

Direct: They said, “We have done our duty”

Indirect: They said that they had done their duty

Direct: Mustakim said, “He has written a letter.’

Indirect: Mustakim said that he had WTitten a letter

Direct: He said, “I write a letter”

Indirect: He said that he wrote a letter

Direct: Maruf said to me, “You did the work”

Indirect: Maruf told me that I had done the work

Direct: Nuzat said, “I shall see the patient”

Indirect: Nuzat said that she would see the patient

Direct: He said to Faiza, “You will do the work’

Indirect: He said to Faiza that she would do the work

Direct: Diba said, “I can do the sum”

Indirect: Diba said that she could do the sum

Direct: She said, “I may go there.”

Indirect: She said that she might go there

Direct: He said, “I must do it”

Indirect: He said that he had to do it”


*** তবে must  দ্বারা যদি চিরন্তন বাধ্যকতা বুঝায় তাহলে must এর কোনা পরিবর্তন নেই অন্য দিকে would, could, might, should, ought to এর কোন পরিবর্তন নেই।

Direct: The teacher said to the students, “ You must obey your parents ”

Indirect: The teacher told the students that they must obey their parents

Direct: Tareq said, “ I could do the sum”   Indirect: Tareq said that he could do the sum.

Direct: Motin said, “ I might go to the function.”   Indirect: Motin said that he might go to the function

Direct: Habib said to me , “ We should do our duty.”   Indirect: Habib that we should do our duty.

N.B: We দ্বারা যদি  Speaker I listener উভয়কে বুঝায়কে তাহলে We এর কোন পরিবর্তন নেই। আবার  We দ্বারা যদি সমগ্র মানবজাতিকে বুঝায় তাহলেও We এর কোন পরিবর্তন নেই।

Direct: He said, “We are mortal.”

Indirect: He said that We are mortal.

Direct: Iqbal said, “You ought to obey your parents”

Indirect: Habib said that I ought to obey my parents.

*** চিরন্তন সত্য ও অভ্যাসগত কর্মের কোন পরিবর্তন নেই।

Direct: Mother said, “ The sun rises in the east”

Indirect: Mother said that the sun rises in the east.

Direct: Shamim said, “ 1 get up at 5 am”

Indirect: Shamim said that he gets up at 5 am.

স্বীকারোক্তিঃ এখানে উপস্থাপিত সকল তথ্যই দক্ষ ও অভিজ্ঞ লোক দ্বারা ইন্টারনেট থেকে সংগ্রহ করা। যেহেতু কোন মানুষই ভুলের ঊর্দ্ধে নয় সেহেতু আমাদেরও কিছু অনিচ্ছাকৃত ভুল থাকতে পারে।সে সকল ভুলের জন্য আমরা আন্তরিকভাবে ক্ষমাপ্রার্থী এবং একথাও উল্লেখ থাকে যে এখান থেকে প্রাপ্ত কোন ভুল তথ্যের জন আমরা কোনভাবেই দায়ী নই এবং আপনার নিকট দৃশ্যমান ভুলটি আমাদেরকে নিম্নোক্ত মেইল / পেজ -এর মাধ্যমে অবহিত করার অনুরোধ জানাচ্ছি।

ই-মেইলঃ admin@admissionwar.com অথবা এইখানে ক্লিক করুন।

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