Narration ইংরেজী ব্যকরণের একটি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ অংশ। মাধ্যমিক ও উচ্চ মাধ্যমিক সকল শ্রেণীর পরীক্ষায় ও বিভিন্ন চাকুরী পরীক্ষায় Narration থেকে প্রশ্ন আসে। আপনারা যাতে সহজেই Narration আয়ত্ব করতে পারেন এজন্য আমরা এ অংশে Narration ( Part-3) নিয়ে আলোচনা করেছি।
|This||that||Tomorrow||the next day|
|Here||there||The next day||the following day|
|Now||then||Yesterday||the previous day|
|The last week||the previous week||Yes||replied in the affirmative and said that|
|Sir/madam||respectfully||No||replied in the negative and said that|
Direct: Mamun said, “I want this pen”
Indirect: Mamun said that lie wanted that pen
Direct: Fatema said, “1 don’t like these nonsense”
Indirect: Fatema said that she did not like those nonsense
Direct: He said, “I live here”
Indirect: He said that he lived there .
Direct: Mustakim said, “I will do the sum now.”
Indirect: Mustakim said that he would do the sum then
Direct: Nuzat said, “I shall see the patient tomorrow”
Indirect: Nuzat said that she would see the patient the next day.
Direct: He said, “I wrote a letter yesterday”
Indirect: He said that he had written a letter the previous day
Direct: He said, “I must do it today”
Indirect: He said that he had to do it that day
Direct: The officer said to the Director, “Sir, I need two days leave”
Indirect: The officer respectfully told the Director that he needed two days leave.
Direct: Maruf said, “Yes, I Shall go to madrasah.”
Indirect: Maruf replied in the affirmative and said that he would go to madrasah .
Direct: Diba said, “ No,I can do the sum ”
Indirect: Diba replied in the negative and said that she could do the sum.
Direct: Maruf said to me 1 did it last week”
Indirect: Maruf said to me he had done it the previous week.
Rules of Passage Narration
সমস্ত Passage টি পড়ে Speaker ও (শ্রোতা) listener এবং sentence গুলোর ক্রিয়ার ধরণ সনাক্ত করে নিতে হবে।
Reporting verb টি মাঝে বা শেষে থাকলেও Indirect করার সময় sentence শুরুতে নিয়ে আসতে হবে।
Direct: You look a little bit like my mother” Jerry said to the authoress, “Especially in the dark by the fire” Indirect: Jerry told the authoress that she looked a little bit like his mother especially in the dark by the fire.
- কোন বক্তার পর দুটি (Speech) থাকলে এবং তা যদি same kinds of sentence হয় তবে and + link দিয়ে যুক্ত করা যায়, speaker + reporting verb কে আবার লেখার দরকার হয় না। তবে ৩য় টিও যদি same kinds of sentence হয় তবে আবার Speaker + further/again + reporting verb দিয়ে শুরু করতে হবে।
Direct: He said, “ I can chop some wood today. 1 shall come again tomorrow. I always keep my words”
Indirect: He said that he could chop some wood that day and that he would come again the next day. He further said that he always kept his word.
- যদি ২য় বাক্যটি প্রথম বাক্যের কারণ প্রকাশ করে সেক্ষেত্রে শুধুমাত্র since/as w দিয়েও যুক্ত করা যায়। Gfv‡e Sentence এভাবে এর মধ্যের সম্পর্ক অনুসারে যে কোন linker বসানো যায়।
Direct “ I will not come tomorrow. I am ill” he said.
Indirect: He said that he would not come the next day as he was ill.
5.Direct narration এ কাউকে আহবান করা হলে Indirect narration এ শুরুতে Addressing বসাতে হয় ।
Direct : He said. “ Friends, help me”
Indirect: Addressing them as friends requested to help them.
|l. Good Morning / Good Evening / Good Night / Happy Christmas |
Exm: I said to him, ‘‘Good morning”
|Speaker + wished + listener + Good morning / Good Evening / Good Night / Happy Christmas |
Exm: I wished him Good morning
|2. Thank you / Congratulations / Welcome Exm: He said to me, “ Thank you”||Speaker + Thank you / Congratulations / Welcome + listener |
Exm. He thanked me.
|3 Good bye |
Exm: I said to him, “Good bye”
|Speaker + bade + good bye |
Exm I bade him goodbye.
|4. Liar / You a liar 1 Slow coach / humorist |
Exm: He said to me, “ You a liar ”
|Speaker + called + listener + liar / You a liar / Slow coach / humorist |
Exm: He called me a liar
|5. By Allah / by Jobe / by God/ by my life |
Exm: ” By Allah” “ he said , “ I will not leave this house”
|Swearing by Allah |
Exm. Swearing by Allah, he said that he would not leave that house
1.The new teacher entered the classroom and said, “Can you tell me what I should do now?” “No Sir.”, one of the students said. The teacher smiled and said, “Try to guess.” “You should introduce yourself to us.” another student said. “Thank you.” said the teacher. “You’re really brilliant.”
Answer: The new teacher entered the classroom and asked the students if they could tell him what he should do then. One of the students replied respectfully in the negative. The teacher smiled and told them to try to guess. Another student said that he should introduce himself to them. The teacher thanked him and said that he was really brilliant.
2.The teacher said to the boy, “Why do you make a noise in the class? You are not attentive to your lessons.” “Sorry Sir” said the boy. “I was asking for a pen to my friend.” “Be attentive and listen to what I say.”
Answer: The teacher asked the boy why he (B) made a noise in the class. He added that he (B) was not attentive to his (B) lessons. The boy apologized to the teacher respectfully. He added that he (B) had been asking for a pen to his (B) friend. Then the teacher advised him (B) to be attentive and to listen to what he (T) said.
3.Omar(R) said to the woman, “Where do you live?” The woman said, “I live in a poor hut south end to this town. I am hungry but there is no food in my house. Will you give me something to eat?” Hazrat Omar(R) said, “Go home. I am coming with food and money.”
Answer: Omar (R) asked the woman where she lived. The woman replied that she lived in a poor hut south end to this town. She added that she was hungry but there was no food in her house. She also asked him if he would give her something to eat. Hazrat Omar (R) told her to go home and added that he was coming with food and money.
4.The old man said, “Can you give me some food? I have been starving for two days.” The maid said, “Why do you beg? Can’t you work?” “No, I am unable to work.”said the old man.
Answer: The old man asked the maid if she could give him some food. He added that he had been starving for two days. The maid asked him why he begged. She again asked him if could not work. Replying negatively the old man said that he was unable to work.
5.“Nasreen, have you done your English lesson today?” asked the teacher.” Yes” Sir, I have done it. But I haven’t understood some grammatical points.” replied Nasreen. “Where is the problem?” said the teacher. “Let us try again.”
Answer: The teacher asked Nasreen if she had done her English lesson that day. Replying respectfully in the positive Nasreen said that she had done it. But she added that she had not understood some grammatical points. The teacher asked her where the problem was. He proposed that they should try again.
6.A fruit seller said, “Which fruit do you want to buy? I have apples from Australia, oranges from Darjeeling, grapes from Kashmir.” The customer said, “What fruits of our country do you have?” The fruit selller said, “I have coconut, guava and jackfruit.” The customer said, “Give one kg of guava as it will be the substitution of Australian apples.”
Answer: A fruit seller asked the customer which fruit he wanted to buy. Then he said that he (S) had apples from Australia, oranges from Darjeeling, grapes from Kasmir. The customer asked the fruit seller what fruits of their country he (S) had. The fruit seller replied that he (S) had coconut, guava and jackfruit. The customer requested him (S) to give one kg of guava as it would be the substitute of Australian apples.
7.“I have got G.P.A. 5 in the S.S.C. Examination,” said Kamal. “Congratulations.” “What do you intend to do now?” asked Hasan.“I want to study in a reputed college. I will try to get myself admitted into Dhaka College, Said Kamal.
Answer: Kamal said that he had got GPA- 5 in the SSC examination. Hasan congratulated Kamal. He asked him (K) what he (K) intend to do then. Kamal replied that he (K) wanted to study in a reputed college and he (K) added that he would try to get himself admitted into Dhaka college.
8.“Why you are putting up the food in your pocket, Sir?” asked the noble man. “I am doing the right thing.My dress deserves the rich dishes,” replied Sheikh Saadi. “Please tell me clearly what you mean to say?” said the noble man.
Answer: The noble man asked Sheikh saadi respectfully why he (S) was putting up the food in his (S) pocket. Sheikh saadi replied that he was doing the right thing and he added that his dress deserved the rich dishes. The noble man requested Sheikh saadi to tell him clearly what he (S) meant to say.
9.“Have you ever been to Cox’s Bazar?”asked Shabab“No, I have never gone there, replied Labib. “But I desire for visiting the place” “I had an opportunity to visit the sea beach last year “said Shabab” “Let us go there this week.”
Answer:Shabab asked Labib if he ever been to Cox’s Bazer. Labib replied in the negative that he(L) had never gone there. But he added that he desired for visiting the place. Shabab said that he had an opportunity to visit sea beach the previous year. He proposed that they should go there that week.
10.“I came to Bogra this afternoon. I sent you a massage before starting from home” Roka said” Did you receive it in time? she asked “No, I did not receive” I replied
Answer: Roka told me that she had gone to Bogra that afternoon. She added that she had sent me a message before starting from home. She asked me if I had received it in time. I replied in the negative that I had not received it.